Major Components found in the motherboard are:
CPU - The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is often seen in the motherboard as it is the main core of every computer. All arrangement, calculation and control happen here.
BIOS – BIOS means Basic Input Output System which is a non-volatile memory that includes configuration details about the computer. It includes all the system required for the CPU to converse with the keyboard, mouse video display, hard drives and also other connections devices. When a PC is power-driven on it uses the BIOS 'boot code' set up much essential task that gets the Computer to a point where it is set to work.
RTC – RTC means Real Time Clock or it is mostly called as CMOS chip which maintains the date, day and time in a 24 hour format just like your watch. The computer uses this clock to 'time stamp' files as they are produced and customized. Whenever the user print a file it time stamps the pages as they are printed.
ChipSet - These are big chip(s) that combine many tasks which are used to create in split into smaller chips on the motherboard. As they save lots of space and cost.
The task completed by these chipsets frequently not working into two strategy with one if an interface from the CPU to the memory and the other providing controllers for IDE, ISA, PCI and USB devices.
Primary Connectors found on the motherboard are:
Power - A 20 or 24 pin connector is being connected to the ATX connector to accept a plug from the power supply. This plug carries DC power to all the circuits on the motherboard.
Keyboard - A Mini-din 6-pin purple color round connector found at the back of the motherboard is the connector where keyboard is being plugged in.
Mouse - A Mini-din 6-pin green color round connector is just next to the keyboard connector and the mouse is being plugged in.
Display - This connector is not included into the motherboard but is built-in in this list since its task is very compulsory. It is a 15-pin, D-shell type connector specially found on a video card which the user have to install into the AGP connector of the motherboard which is in brown color and as today the motherboard are being highly developed and the VGA connectors are also inbuilt available in the motherboard and the even the AGP slots are being replaced by PCI Express slots which are being denoted in white color.
IDE – The IDE are termed as Integrated Drive Electronics. These are 40 pin connectors that make available a place to connect the ribbon cables from the hard drives and also the CD or DVD ROM drive. All data among the motherboard and the drives is being passing on through these cables.
FDD connector - It is like function to the IDE connector. It is a 34 pin ribbon connector that passes data among the motherboard and any floppy drive installed in the Computer. And the connector is in white color.
DRAM – DRAM consists of Dynamic Random Access Memory connectors especially for SIMM and DIMM type of memory modules. And confirm before installing the RAM whether the motherboard supports the DDR1 or the DDR2 memory module.
Standard Serial Connector - This connector has been about in PCs since they first appeared. It was initially located on ISA expansion type cards. Nowadays it is an essential part of latest motherboards. It is a 9- pin, D-shell connector that agrees to you to connect external devices with serial ports to your PC. The maximum data rate is 115 KB/s.
USB - Universal Serial Bus -This is a comparatively new serial bus. Formerly specific as low speed, 1.2 Mb/s, it was improved to full speed, 12Mb/s. The latest version 2.0 is specified as high speed of more than 400 MB/s.
One day the USB will finally change the standard serial connector that has been the workhorse serial port in previous computers. At present USB are the average connectors on all the latest motherboard available in the market.
Not like the serial and parallel ports, the USB port is designed to power devices connected to it. The devices must be low power devices and must be able to reduce their current draw to less than 0.5uAmps when commanded to do so by the PC.
Centronix or Standard Parallel - This connector has been about in computers since they first emerged. It has 37-pins and is now included on recent motherboards. It is frequently used to attach your printer to the PC and moves data at speed of about 1MB/s.
SCSI – The SCSI is being termed as Small Computer System Interface which sends the data at a maximum speed of up to 80Mb/s. It not included into most computer motherboards. It can be installed in a computer in a form of Expansion card. With the help of this card the user can connect around seven hard drives in one computer.
Expansion Card Connectors - The CPU is being connected to expansion card connectors through one of the chip set ICs mentioned above. They are situated on the motherboard near the back of the computer. These connectors permit special utility cards to plug into and work with the computer.
Before motherboards incorporated the serial and centronix connectors were found on expansion boards that plugged into ISA slots.
Most PCs have the following expansion connector types:
ISA – ISA is termed as Industry Standard Architecture connectors which are been about since 1980 and foremost appeared in the IBM XT computer. This form of slot still appears in some recent motherboards so that older expansion boards can still utilized. Though, many motherboards no longer have ISA connectors on them.
PCI – The PCI is termed as Peripheral Component Interconnect which is a recent and quicker interface which accepts all expansion cards that have a PCI interface.
AGP – The AGP consists of Accelerated Graphics Port is a connector that is designed to operate with video cards. And today the most recent motherboard is being replaced from AGP to PCI Express card.